Deeper Dive into Ultraviolet Lasers
Some UV Laser Applications
Some popular UV applications include Micromachining, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Fluorescence Lifetime, Raman Spectroscopy, and many others.
Flow Cytometry: Application Basics, Source Requirements & Solutions
There are many different flow cytometry based applications. With multiple wavelengths at your disposal, allowing such diverse combinations as mentioned above, all of these applications are made more accessible. Some of these applications include cell sorting, immune cell phenotyping (immunophenotyping), immune cell function analysis, intracellular cytokine staining analysis, receptor occupancy analysis, gene therapy, cell cycle analysis, cell proliferation, membrane potential, live/dead bacteria discrimination, tumor suppressor gene/protein expression, antigen-specific cell responses, and many others.
Just as in traditional particle counting, these lasers must exhibit excellent pointing and power stability, and single-mode, low noise operation (typically free-space output). However, unlike conventional particle counting systems, the wavelengths must be chosen to match the excitation spectra of the available fluorophores. Typical wavelengths include 355nm, 405nm, 473nm, 488nm, 532nm, 553nm, 561nm, 594nm, 640nm and NIR, with output powers in the 25-500mW range. Additionally, since multiple lasers are being integrated into a single system, size, cost, and ease of integration all become significant factors in deciding which laser to choose. Here at RPMC lasers, we offer a unique ultra-compact laser source which is capable of providing a low noise (0.4% typical) single-mode (typical M2 of 1.3) output beam with laser housing dimensions of only 50 mm x 30 mm x 18 mm. These lasers are available from 405 nm to 1064 nm and are capable of producing output powers as high as 500mW.
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Gallium Nitride (GaN) Laser Diodes: Green, Blue, and UV Wavelengths
Semiconductor devices can be engineered to have a specific bandgap energy by combining various elements to form binary, ternary, and quaternary alloys. These semiconductors can have their bandgap further tailored, varying the stoichiometry in ternary and quaternary semiconductors. In our specific case, visible laser diodes can be produced from a combination of nitride materials, such as aluminum nitride (AlN), GaN, and indium nitride (InN), creating AlGaN and InGaN laser diodes for example. The resultant alloy, typically referred to as simply ‘GaN’ in shorthand, can theoretically be combined using the following formulas AlxGa1−xN and AlxInyGa1−x-yN to form any bandgap which falls within the “banana,” shown in the figure below.
The Green, Blue & UV Laser Diode Revolution
In practice, the material science involved in stably producing laser diode structures with any arbitrary stoichiometry is far more challenging. As stated earlier, for many years it was thought that these challenges would never be overcome, until 1996 when the first AlGaN laser diode was invented by Shuji Nakamura. Nakamura’s work with GaN based semiconductor lasers and LEDs was so revolutionary that he was later awarded the Nobel prize in physics. Over the past 20 years, the technology for making Gallium Nitride (GaN) Laser Diodes has matured into its own branch of optoelectronics. These laser diodes are now available in wavelengths from 375 nm to 521 nm, with output powers exceeding 100 watts…
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High-Energy Q-Switched Lasers for Harmonic Generation – Part 1
We have previously discussed the physics behind harmonic generation. The most important thing to take away from these discussions is that as a general rule of thumb, there are two ways to increase the efficiency of harmonic generation: increasing the peak power and decreasing the spot size. Since the Quantas-Q2HE has a bell-shaped beam profile, with a greater than 75% Gaussian fit on top of the extremely high peak power discussed previously, it is not only useful for second harmonic generation but third, fourth and fifth harmonic generation as well. As a result, the Q2HE can produce ultraviolet laser wavelengths as low as 211 nm. The Quantas-Q2HE is available in seven different configurations, all of which can generate fifth harmonic light, as shown in the table below…
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Microchip Laser Harmonics Down to the UV Region
Surprisingly this resonator geometry allows for the generation of short pulse width (sub-nanosecond) laser with high peak powers often greater than tens of kilowatts. This makes these lasers ideal for both external and intracavity harmonic generation. External cavity second harmonic generation was first achieved in 1996 by bonding a thin KTP crystal, that is coated to be highly reflective at 1064 nm and anti-reflective at 532nm, and then bonded to the front of a Nd:YVO4 microchip laser. Within two years, third and fourth harmonic microchip lasers were also demonstrated using an external crystal to produce 355nm and 266nm Ultraviolet lasers. In order to fully understand why these lasers are ideal for harmonic generation, it is important to review the fundamental physics underlying this nonlinear proces
How Can We Help?
With over 25 years experience providing Ultraviolet lasers to researchers and OEM integrators working in various markets and applications, and 1000s of units fielded, we have the experience to ensure you get the right product for the application. Working with RPMC ensures you are getting trusted advice from our knowledgeable and technical staff on a wide range of laser products. RPMC and our manufacturers are willing and able to provide custom solutions for your unique application.
If you have any questions, or if you would like some assistance please Contact Us here. Furthermore, you can email us at firstname.lastname@example.org to talk to a knowledgeable Product Manager.
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