This technique has gained popularity in the scientific and industrial communities and typical applications are in life sciences, semiconductor inspection and materials science.
Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over conventional widefield optical microscopy,
Flow cytometry is a laser-based technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering. This technology is used to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of particles in a fluid as it passes through at least one laser. The fluorescence labeled cell components are excited by the laser to emit light at varying wavelengths. The fluorescence can then be measured to determine the amount and type of cells present in a sample. Up to thousands of particles per second can be analyzed as they pass through the liquid stream. Most of the visible wavelengths can be used for Flow Cytometry.
Fluorescence Excitation involves using a beam of light, usually ultraviolet light, that excites the electrons in molecules of certain compounds and causes them to emit light; typically, but not necessarily, visible light. Fluorescence is the property of some atoms and molecules to absorb light at a particular wavelength and to subsequently emit light of longer wavelength after a brief interval, termed the fluorescence lifetime.
Molecules have various states referred to as energy levels. Fluorescence spectroscopy is primarily concerned with electronic and vibrational states. This technique is rapidly becoming an important tool in genetics and cell biology.
Optogenetics uses light to control neurons which have been genetically sensitized to light. It is a neuromodulation technique employed in neuroscience that uses a combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control and monitor the activities of individual neurons in living tissue and to precisely measure the effects of those manipulations in real-time.